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Geochemical evidence for carbon and chlorine enrichments in the mantle source of kimberlites (Udachnaya pipe, Siberian craton)

Kitayama, Y. ; Thomassot, E. ; Galy, A. ; Korsakov, A. ; Golovin, A. ; d’Eyrames, E., GCA

Geochemical evidence for carbon and chlorine enrichments in the mantle source of kimberlites (Udachnaya pipe, Siberian craton)

Kitayama, Y. ; Thomassot, E. ; Galy, A. ; Korsakov, A. ; Golovin, A. ; d’Eyrames, E.

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2021, 315, 295-316

Abstract :

Deep, carbonate-rich melts are key constituents of kimberlites and are crucial for understanding the cycle of volatile elements in the mantle. On the Siberian craton, the Udachnaya-East kimberlite hosts extremely well-preserved nodules composed of chlorides + carbonates + sulfates, that do not present any relict sedimentary textures. These salty nodules display textures that are commonly observed in quenched liquids and may thus represent the very last stage liquid of the kimberlite. Alternatively, they could represent assimilated sedimentary material, or even post-magmatic hydrothermal alteration, because kimberlites are known to ascend through the lithosphere while assimilating material from their wall rocks.

Here we focus specifically on those chloride-carbonate nodules, which are composed of 70% chloride + 30% alkali-carbonate and sulfate, and used two radiogenic systems (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd) and the isotopic composition of sulfur, in addition to their major and trace element compositions (n = 3). We then compared the results with the same geochemical data on host kimberlites (n = 4), sedimentary cover (n = 3) and hydrothermal veins (n = 3).

Taken together, our results show that the nodules are not the product of a contamination by the Cambrian sedimentary cover. Trace element patterns of the nodules display extreme enrichments in the same elements that are relatively depleted in the host kimberlite but also in kimberlites worldwide (K, Rb, Sr, Pb), suggesting that chloride-carbonate nodules are snapshots of the latest stage liquid present in the kimberlite system. Their isotopic compositions (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and δ34S) are consistent with a common magmatic source with their host kimberlite. We propose that chloride-carbonate nodules record a missing compositional endmember, which could explain the trend towards more radiogenic Sr isotope ratios at nearly constant Nd signatures observed in their host kimberlite, as well as in other kimberlites worldwide. This observed trend suggests the presence of a recycled component with high Rb/Sr (such as salts or terrigenous sediments) in the mantle sampled by some kimberlites, either in the lithosphere or the asthenosphere. This study highlights that the role of alkalies and halogens may have been underestimated in the genesis of kimberlites at depths where diamonds are stable, as well as in more evolved magmatic stages. Segregations of chlorides and carbonates occur specifically in sulfate-bearing kimberlites, which may thus sample a mantle domain in which sulfates with δ34S > 0‰ are dominant. The existence of such a reservoir could explain the apparent imbalance observed between the chondritic value (δ34S of 0‰) and the negative S isotopic compositions of mantle sulfides (MORB and peridotites).

Voir en ligne : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2021....




publié lundi 8 novembre 2021