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An experimental study of dissolution and precipitation of forsterite in a thermal gradient : implications for cellular growth of olivine phenocrysts in basalt and melt inclusion formation

Laumonier, M. ; Laporte, D. ; Faure, F. ; Provost, A. ; Schiano, P. ; Ito, K., Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

An experimental study of dissolution and precipitation of forsterite in a thermal gradient : implications for cellular growth of olivine phenocrysts in basalt and melt inclusion formation

Laumonier, M. ; Laporte, D. ; Faure, F. ; Provost, A. ; Schiano, P. ; Ito, K.

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 2019, 174, 94

Abstract :

The morphology of crystals in magmas strongly depends on the temperature regime of the system, in particular the degree of undercooling and the cooling rate. To simulate low degrees of undercooling, we developed a new experimental setup based on thermal migration, in which large cylinders of forsterite (single crystals) immersed in haplobasaltic melt were subjected to a temperature gradient. As forsterite solubility is sensitive to temperature, the forsterite on the high temperature side undergoes dissolution and the dissolved components are transported toward the low-temperature side where a layer of newly grown forsterite forms (up to 340 μm thick after 101 h). A striking feature is that the precipitation process does not produce a planar front of forsterite advancing at the expense of liquid : the growth front shows a fingered outline in planar section, with solid lobes separated by glass tubes that are perpendicular to the growth front. We ascribe this texture to cellular growth, a type of growth that had not been experimentally produced so far in silicate systems. We find that the development of cellular growth requires low degrees of undercooling (a few °C) and large crystal–liquid interfaces ( 1 mm across or more), and that it occurs at a growth rate of the order of 10−9 m/s. We found natural occurrences of cellular growth on the rims of olivines from basanites, but otherwise cellular textures are poorly documented in natural volcanic rocks. Melt inclusions were produced in our experiments, showing that they can form in olivine at relatively slow rates of growth (10−9 m/s or lower).

Voir en ligne : https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-019-...




publié lundi 16 décembre 2019